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Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Fall Color with California Native Plants

 
Riparian trees provide good fall color in S. California


There are many gardening myths about California native plants  (http://www.slideshare.net/cvadheim/california-native-plant-myths-2014).  One is that ‘all California native plants turn brown in the fall’.  Some certainly do – dry season dormancy is a great way to survive our hot, dry summers.  But a number of natives are evergreen, or bloom and fruit in fall.  The trick to an interesting fall garden is to choose plants specifically for fall color.

Most people picture brightly colored leaves when they think of fall color. If you live in a cold climate, bright leaves do define the fall landscape.  But fall color in mediterranean gardens is a little more subtle.  It actually involves more choices – and greater sophistication - than just ‘planting a maple’. 

 
Evergreen shrubs provide the perfect backdrop
 for accent plants

Provide a Backdrop

One trick to an attractive S. California fall garden is to plant some evergreen plants.  We particularly like the water-wise, evergreen native shrubs.  But any evergreen plants will do – grasses, sedges, rushes, groundcover perennials, etc.  Green foliage looks cool and refreshing; that’s reason enough to include it in a California garden. But evergreen shrubs, particularly the larger ones, also provide the perfect backdrop for fall color.

A garden is like a theatrical stage.  The colorful flowering plants – and those with unusual shapes and foliage – are the actors (‘accent plants’).  But actors, whether human or plant, need a stage on which to perform. And an important component is a backdrop that accentuates their colorful attributes. 

A dark, grayed fence or wall is one option for an effective fall background.  Choose a neutral, grayed brown or dark gray-green with a matt (non-shiny) finish for best contrast.  Dark grayed hues fade into the distance, while providing a neutral backdrop for the plants.  For more on backgrounds in garden design see: http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2014/08/designing-your-new-california-garden-11.html  

Large evergreen shrubs are another alternative.  Whether individually, or as a large hedge or hedgerow, shrubs with medium-to-dark, evergreen leaves provide the perfect background for fall-blooming plants.  We’ll talk more about hedges and hedgerows next month (November, 2016).

Plants with Fall Leaf Color

If you want a garden filled with fall leaf color, you’ll need to move some place with a colder climate. While day length triggers the color changes, cold fall nights really promote the bright reds and oranges.  For more on how leaves change color, see references 1-3, below.

'Roger's Red' grape has spectacular fall leaf color!
 
A few native shrubs and vines produce red or purple foliage color in fall/winter in lowland S. California.  The most reliable is ‘Roger’s Red’ grape, which yields vivid, red-purple leaves - even in warmer, coastal gardens.  With its colorful leaves and dark, edible grapes, ‘Roger’s Red’ is the closest we get to ‘brightly colored fall leaves’.  In full color, it’s a sight to behold!

Mahonia aquifolium leaves can be striking
 
Native currants and gooseberries, like this Ribes speciosum,
 can be quite colorful in fall.
 
A few other native shrubs are known for their red leaf color.  Although evergreen, Oregon grape (Mahonia/berberis aquifolium) and other Mahonia and Berberis species produce some red-purple leaves, if the fall/winter is cold enough. As our fall/winter temperatures increase, they are becoming less reliable sources of color in western Los Angeles County.  So, too, are the N. California maples, including the Vine Maple (Acer circinatum) and the Prunus species (like Western chokecherry - Prunus virginiana var. demissa).   These can produce spectacular color, but only if the conditions are right.

Lyonothamnus species make their own colorful mulch in fall.
 
Sourberry (Rhus trilobata) has red-orange fall leaves, and the native Dogwoods (Cornus glabrata; Corus sericea) are known for their red-brown leaves and bark.  Fallen leaves of the Island Ironwoods (Lyonothamnus floribundus) and Western redbud (Cercis occidentalis) create a striking red-brown mulch in the fall. And the fall hues of the medicinal perennial/groundcover, Yerba Mansa (Anemopsis californica), are enchanting.    These are the fall reds of S. California; unique  touches of color found in few local gardens.

Anemopsis californica (Yerba mansa) becomes quite colorful
 in the dry days of fall.
 
If you really want red-orange leaves, you may need to select a non-native tree.  A common choice in S. California is the Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), with its reliable red and orange color.  Crepe Myrtles (Lagerstroemia species) produce yellow to orange fall leaves.   We’ve also enjoyed the fall color and fruits of ‘Anna’ apple and other low-chill apples (Malus domestica species), Asian pears and pears (Pyrus species and cultivars).   These can easily be grown along with native plants with similar water requirements.

 
Some S. California natives produce good yellow colors in fall.  Best known are riparian trees like the native willows (Salix species) and Cottonwoods (Populus species), Western sycamore (Platanus racemosa), Boxelder (Acer negundo) and the Southern California Walnut (Juglans californica).  All are large trees; in fact, most are too large for typical suburban yards.  The willows and cottonwoods have water-seeking roots (invade water & sewage pipes).   All of the above are also susceptible to the destructive Polyphagus Shot Hole Borer, a serious emerging pest of wildlands, parks and gardens [4].


Western redbud (Cercis occidentales) is showy
 both spring and fall.
 
Several other winter-deciduous native trees/shrubs turn yellow or yellow-orange in fall.  These include the Blue elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea), Western redbud (Cercis occidentalis), the native Ashes (Fraxinus dipetala; Fraxinus velutina), California mock orange (Philadelphus lewisii) and the wild roses (Rosa species). These can be better choices for home gardens, although their colors are not as bright or reliable as the riparian trees. 

If you have a small garden, you can even plant the wild roses, Narrowleaf willow (Salix exigua) or Yerba mansa in a large container.  A single pot may satisfy your craving for fall leaf color.  For a complete list of native plants (appropriate for lower-elevation S. California) with fall leaf color see:

 

Plants with Fall Flowers

While cold-climate areas excel at fall leaf color, our local native plants surpass them with fall flowers, fruits and seeds.  Cold climate gardeners envy our long fall growing season and color palette.  Some local native plants are at their best in the shorter days of fall.
 



Native Goldenbushes (like this Hazardia) provide reliable
 yellow  flowers, even in a very dry fall
 
Shrubs in the Sunflower family provide the most spectacular fall yellow and gold flowers. If you love yellow, fall is a good season!  At the pale end of the spectrum are Mulefat (Baccharis salicifolia) and Coyote bush (Baccharis pilularis).  Most of the rest have brilliant yellow-gold flowers in abundance.   Among the best are the larger Goldenbushes (Hazardia species and Isocoma menziesii), the mid-sized Rabbitbush (Ericameria nauseosa) and other Ericameria species and the smaller Butterweed (Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii), Matchweed (Gutierrezia californica), the Goldenrods (Solidago species) and Telegraph plant (Heterotheca grandiflora).   The tall Annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus) may also bloom in the garden setting in fall.
 
The fiery flowers of Epilobium are a fall treat!
 
If red and orange flowers are more to your taste, you can’t go wrong with the California fuschias (Epilobium canum and other Epilobium species).  California fuschia and its cultivars are prized with good reason. They come in colors ranging from white to brilliant red.  They are bright, colorful, water-wise and produce lots of fall blooms in a good year.  Epilobiums are a good, low maintenenace investment.

Mimulus cardinalis often blooms again in fall.
 
Diplacus species and cultivars are also good for fall color.
 
Several red/orange flowering plants may bloom again in fall, including the Baja fairyduster (Calliandra californica), Catalina snapdragon (Gambelia speciosa) and Chuparosa (Justicia californica).   The Scarlet monkeyflower (Erithranthe/Mimulus cardinalis), the shrubby perennial monkeyflowers (Diplacus species and cultivars) and the Monkeyflower savory (Clinopodium mimuloides), all of which like a little shade and water, also come to life again in fall.  If you need a colorful porch pot, these are a good bet for late summer and fall.


Symphyotrichum chilense (Aster chilensis)

Pluchea odorata is spectacular in fall
 
The most reliable purple flower of fall is the Coast aster (Symphyotrichum chilense (Aster chilensis)), useful as a ground cover or pot plant.  Pink-blooming fall natives include the spectacular Sweetscent (Pluchea odorata) and Arrowweed (Pluchea sericea).  For scent, plant the Brickelbushes (Brickellia species); their sweet fragrance at dusk is a welcome addition to the fall garden.
 

Plants with Colorful or Showy Seeds, Seed heads or Fruits
 
Fall colors in a S. California garden
 
Some of our most spectacular fall color comes from seeds, seed heads and fruits.  At the top of the list for seed color are the native Buckwheats (Eriogonum species).  While some buckwheats bloom into fall, most are going to seed.  And oh, what a show they create!  Colors range from pale brown to rust and dark brown.  The seed heads may be small and round or large and flat, depending on the species.   They add color and interesting shapes from summer through fall.
 

Native buckwheats (Eriogonum species) provide 
rich rusts and browns.
 
If you want a colorful fall garden, plant several species of native Buckwheat.  They are easy to grow, water-wise, and excellent pollinator and bird habitat.  They will become the backbone of your fall garden.   They are local treasures!
 
Helianthus annuus provides food for finches
 
Many of the fall-blooming Sunflowers, Creambush (Holodiscus discolor),  and warm-season grasses also have showy seed heads in fall.  Don’t be too anxious to prune them; migrating birds need their seeds for food and they add color and interest to the garden.   For suggestions on fall pruning of native plants see: http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2014/11/maintaining-your-new-california-garden_15.html
 

Toyon espalier brightens a dull wall
 
And then there are the colorful fruits of fall.  The most showy – and well-known – are the red fruits of the Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia).  Another common name for this large shrub is the California Christmas berry.  With climate change, we may have to rename it 'Halloween berry' – it’s coloring up earlier every year! The fruits provide spectacular color, as well as food for fruit-eating birds.  Toyon makes a spectacular espalier along a wall.

Native wild grapes are edible and showy.
 
Native grapes ripen in late summer or fall. The dark fruits contrast beautifully with the fall leaf color (red or yellow).   Other native shrubs may still have colorful fruits in fall.  These include the native currants and gooseberries (Ribes species), Western chokecherry (Prunus virginiana var. demissa), Netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata), Summer holly (Comarostaphylis diversifolia ssp. planifolia), California coffeeberry (Frangula/Rhamnus californica) and Silver buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea).    Of course, the non-native persimmons and pomegranates are also spectacular (and delicious) in fall.

Native honeysuckles (Lonicera species) have showy berries.
 
Even the native honeysuckles (Lonicera species), boxthorns (Lycium species), nightshades (Solanum species) and the native roses will have colorful fall fruits in a good year (or with a little supplemental water).  Contrast them with the white berries of the snowberries (Symphoricarpos albus and S. mollis), which remain on their bushes well into winter.  For a complete list of native plants (appropriate for lower-elevation S. California) with fall flower, seed and fruit color see:


 
We hope we’ve inspired you to plan a little color for your fall garden. Southern California’s native fall color is different from that of New England, but it is every bit as lovely.   The peaceful colors of a local fall garden are soothing and restful; they fit in with the landscape.  And while the colors don’t jump out and grab you like the reds of a fall maple, they are beautiful in their own right.  Savor them like a fine wine; they are part of our California natural heritage.

 
__________________

  1. https://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/pubs/leaves/leaves.shtm
  2. http://www.scientificamerican.com/video/why-do-autumn-leaves-change-color-2013-10-03/
  3. http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/home/a18922/why-do-leaves-change-color-0909/
  4. http://ucanr.edu/sites/socaloakpests/Polyphagous_Shot_Hole_Borer/

 

 

 

We welcome your comments (below).  You can also send your questions to: mothernaturesbackyard10@gmail.com

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Plant of the Month (October) : Pink (Hairy; Purple; Western) honeysuckle – Lonicera hispidula


Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula)


After five years of drought, plants are blooming at unusual times.   That’s because precipitation and temperature cues - used by plants to time flowering, leafing out and growing - are all mixed up. The long-term effects of climate change are largely unknown, but they are already making garden planning a little more challenging.  Our Plant of the Month is mostly a June bloomer.  But if you watered a bit this summer – or if we’ve had recent rains – a Pink honeysuckle may put out a few fall blooms, as the weather cools down.

Western Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula) is a true honeysuckle.  The majority of Lonicera species are native to China.  Most are twining climbers or arching shrubs that produce lovely, characteristic flowers.   While widely planted, the non-native honeysuckles can be rampantly invasive.  Species like the Japanese, Amur and Coral honeysuckles are on ‘don’t plant’ lists in Australia and California for good reason!
 
Native honeysuckles can be groundcovers. This is the Southern
 Honeysuckle (Lonicera subspicata)


California gardeners are often surprised to learn there are native honeysuckles.  Of about 20 N. American species, seven are native to California. [1]    Four grow only in the foothills of Central and Northern California.  But three are native to Los Angeles County: Lonicera hispidula  (Pink honeysuckle);  Lonicera interrupta (Chaparral honeysuckle); and Lonicera subspicata  (Southern honeysuckle).  In fact, the range of the Pink honeysuckle extends from San Diego County through N. California to Oregon. [2]

Pink honeysuckle was collected in Los Angeles County by Anstruther Davidson in 1893, though earlier collections were made in Northern California. [3]   The earliest LA County collections were from Catalina and San Clemente Islands, where this species still grows.  It also can be found in Malibu Canyon, in the Santa Monica Mountain Range, and in the San Gabriels.  This is primarily a species of the foothills, growing in canyons, dry hillsides and stream banks, in local woodland and chaparral communities below 3000 ft. (1000 m.) elevation.
 
Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula) - a sprawling vine
 
Pink honeysuckle is a climbing or twining vine (technically a liana; a woody vine that climbs up or through trees to get to the light).  The stems are herbaceous at the tips, becoming woody with age.  Lonicera hispidula is more robust than Lonicera subspicata  (Southern honeysuckle), the other local species we’ve grown in gardens.

That being said, Pink honeysuckle is not a ‘garden thug’ like some of its non-native cousins.  With water, it grows fairly quickly to 8-10 ft. in length; a very large specimen might reach 15+ feet long. The branches are not as long as those of the Southern Honeysuckle, which can reach 20 ft. or more.  The stems are hairy (another common name is ‘Hairy honeysuckle’) and have shorter side branches.  The branches can easily be pruned or trained before they get too woody.  The plant is said to live only 15-20 years or so, but our experience is too short to comment on this.

The local native honeysuckles do not really twine; nor do they have hold-fasts (like ivy) or tendrils (like grapes).  They are actually sprawlers; if not given support (or a convenient tree or shrub to grow through) they function as ground covers.  In fact, they make a nice low, woody groundcover under trees.

Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula): foliage
 
Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula): purple foliage
 of late summer
 
The leaves of Lonicera hispidula are fairly typical for the Honeysuckles: simple, opposite and oval or oblong.  The leaves are hairy like the stems; those of spring and summer are medium to darker green.  The leaves become purple-tinged with summer-fall drought and may be winter deciduous in colder areas. The purple leaves are unusual and attractive. In lowland gardens of Western Los Angeles County, the plant is mostly evergreen.
 
Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula): flowers & buds
 
The flowers of this species are exquisite; the plant draws comments whenever it’s in bloom. If your garden favors the pinks and purples, this may be just the climber for you.   The flowers grow in paired clusters along slender flowering stalks arising from the leaf axils.  The color ranges from pastel lavender to bright pink, with a white throat.  A mature, flowering plant is a sight to behold!
 
 
Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula): close-up of flowers
 
The flowers are modified to suit their primary pollinators – the hummingbirds.  The corolla consists of a floral tube of fused petals that terminate in two lips.  The lips are rolled back, away from the sexual organs (see above).  Both male (stamens) and female (style) parts extend well beyond the petals.  The female stigma is green-yellow and the anthers (pollen producing part of stamens) are orange with yellow pollen.

The flowers have a sweet scent, which attracts hummingbirds and butterflies.  The nectar, produced at the bottom of the floral tube, is also very sweet.  Children of all ages love to pick the flowers and suck the nectar from the tube.  These plants aren’t called ‘honeysuckles’ for nothing!
 

Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula): ripe fruits
 
The fruits are small (to perhaps ½ inch) berries.  They start green and become a lovely translucent red when ripe.  Like most parts of the plant, the fruits are sticky (this plant has many secretory glands).   In addition to being decorative, the berries are edible.  They are quite tart – best used with plenty of sweetener or preserved as a flavoring (see: http://mother-natures-backyard.blogspot.com/2016/08/california-gourmet-preserving-summer.html). If you don’t eat the fruits, the birds will gladly do so.

Pink honeysuckle thrives in most local soils, including clays, but probably not in very alkaline soils (pH > 8.5). No need to amend your soil in any way – just plant and water until established.   Like many local vines, it does best with a little afternoon shade or dappled sun.  But you could grow it in full sun (with water) or more shade (it just won’t flower as well). 

In our experience, Lonicera hispidula takes 2-3 years to become fully established.  After that, the plant is very drought tolerant, needing only occasional summer water (or none at all in shadier locations).  It also tolerates more frequent water – 2 to 3 times a month – to keep the leaves green.  

In Mother Nature’s Backyard, our honeysuckles may get watered 2-3 times from June through October.  Like all local natives, Pink Honeysuckle does need adequate winter-spring rains.  Don’t hesitate to supplement winter rains in a dry winter.  This plant can even take some standing water for a short time.

In our experience, Lonicera hispidula is fairly pest-free.  However, it is an alternate host for Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death), a fungus-like pathogen affecting woody plants, including the Coast Liveoak.   For more on this emerging plant pathogen see references 4-6, below.
 

Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula): growing on
 open fence, Mother Nature's Backyard
 
Pink honeysuckle is most often used as a climber/vine.   It needs support, whether a convenient shrub, trellis, arbor or open-work fence (see above).  You can either weave new growth between the supports, or tie the branches (we use strips of old nylon stockings for this purpose).   Honeysuckles can also be espaliered along a wall or fence, with the appropriate supports.  
 
Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula) needs support
 
Pink honeysuckle is a wonderful plant for growing over arches and arbors.  The flowers and scent are heavenly on a warm spring/summer day. It reminds one of grandmother’s garden.  And of course you can sit and enjoy the pollinators and the birds that eat the fruits.

We also like to let Honeysuckles grow along the ground as groundcovers.  We sometimes allow them to grow amongst native grasses, sedges, Yarrow, wild strawberries, Woodmints and other natives as a mixed groundcover under trees.   This is truly Mother Nature’s own groundcover – like something you’d see out in the wilds.  Lonicera hispidula would also work well on a bank, to stabilize the soil.
 
 
Mixed groundcover includes Honeysuckle, Yarrow,
native grasses
 
To our knowledge, Pink honeysuckle was not used in traditional Native California medicine.  The Asian honeysuckles, however, are widely used as medicinals.  The hollow stems of Pink honeysuckle were used as pipestems.  And the ashes of this plant were used for black tattoo color. 

In summary, Pink honeysuckle is a great native alternative to the invasive non-native honeysuckles.  It can be used as a climber or groundcover – equally well.  The flowers and fruits are attractive and edible (you can make a delicate tea from the flowers).  The plants attract hummingbirds, long-tongued butterflies and fruit eating birds.   We love the native honeysuckles.   We only wish that we saw them in more local gardens!
 

Pink honeysuckle (Lonicera hispidula) on fence (foreground).
 Mother Nature's Backyard, Gardena CA
 

For a gardening information sheet see: http://www.slideshare.net/cvadheim/lonicera-hispidula


For plant information sheets on other native plants see: http://nativeplantscsudh.blogspot.com/p/gallery-of-native-plants_17.html
 

__________________________________

  1. Calflora - http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/specieslist.cgi?where-genus=Lonicera
  2. Jepson e-flora - http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=31505
  3. Consortium of California Herbaria – http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_consort.pl?taxon_name=Lonicera hispidula 
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytophthora_ramorum
  5. http://www.suddenoakdeath.org/
  6. http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn74151.html

 

 

We welcome your comments (below).  You can also send your questions to: mothernaturesbackyard10@gmail.com